Energy: The ability to change something or move it.
Thermal Energy: Energy from the movement of particles. We feel thermal energy as heat.
Conduction: The transfer of heat energy by one thing touching another. For example, when you touched the chair let and made it warmer you're seeing an example of conduction.
Conductor: A material that readily allows heat to move.
Insulator: A material that inhibits the movement of heat.
Convection Current: A pattern of flowing heat energy.